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For cationic surfactant-based conditioners;
- Add appropriate thickening/suspending agent PEG-150 / Stearyl Alcohol / SMDI Copolymer – ACULYN™ 46N Rheology Modifier or CELLOSIZE™ Hydroxyethyl Cellulose PCG-10 Europe.
- Add more surfactants or emulsifiers like Behenyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride (BTAC), Cetearyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride (CTAC), or Alkyl Polyglucoside – EcoSense™ 1200 Surfactant, EcoSense™ 919 Surfactant or EcoSense™ 3000 Surfactant.
- Add fatty alcohols.
- Stabilize anionic surfactant insoluble silicones by playing with shampoo rheology. Add more surfactant or thickeners with suspending function such ACULYN ™ Excel Rheology Modifier, Crothix or refatting agents like Cocamide MEA or MIPA.
- Viscosity drop can be increased by increasing the level of thickening agent, surfactants, waxes such as refatting agents
- Solubility in Nonaqueous Solvents - The solubility of CELLOSIZE™ Texture in nonaqueous media varies according to the nature and quantity of substituent groups on the anhydro glucose chain. When using a water-miscible, organic solvent, such as an alcohol or glycol, use a ratio of at least 5 to 8 parts of solvent to 1-part CELLOSIZE™ Texture.
- Dispersion in Non-solvent Media - Untreated CELLOSIZE™ Texture cellulose ethers may also be dispersed in non-solvent media such as vegetable oil, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, glycerin, corn syrup, and high-fructose corn syrup. A ratio of 5 to 8 parts non-solvent to 1-part CELLOSIZE™ Texture is recommended to obtain a fluid slurry. The dispersion of CELLOSIZE™ Texture in a non-solvent medium may then be added to cold water, or the cold water may be added to the dispersion.
- Dispersion Technique:
- Add the CELLOSIZE™ Texture to the non-solvent. A ratio of 5 - 8 parts non-solvent to 1-part CELLOSIZE™ Texture is recommended to obtain a liquid slurry.
- Agitate the mixture and CELLOSIZE™ Texture powder until the particles of CELLOSIZE™ Texture are evenly dispersed.
- The dispersion of CELLOSIZE™ Texture in a non-solvent medium may be added to cold water, or the cold water may be added to the dispersion.
- Continue mixing until the CELLOSIZE™ Texture powder is completely hydrated, and the solution is smooth. You can now add the remaining ingredients in your formulation.
Working with Untreated Powders - Although CELLOSIZE™ Texture powders are soluble in cold water; they must first be thoroughly dispersed in the water to prevent lumping. In some applications, dispersion can be accomplished at ambient temperatures or in cold water by using high-shear mixer. However, if untreated powders are added directly to cold water without enough agitation, a lumpy solution may result. Lumping results from incomplete wetting of the individual powder particles. Only part of the powder dissolves, a gelatinous membrane which shields the remaining powder from complete hydration. Several dispersion techniques are commonly used an are described below. Each as advantages in certain applications.
Dispersion in Hot Water - Often called the "hot/cold" technique, this method takes advantage of the insolubility of CELLOSIZE™ Texture in hot water. The powder is first dispersed by mixing thoroughly with 1/5 to 1/3 of the total required volume of water that has been heated to above 90°C (194°F). Mixing continues until all particles are thoroughly wetted.
For complete solubilization, the remainder of the water is then added as cold water or ice to lower the temperature of the dispersion. Once the dispersion reaches the temperature at which that particular CELLOSIZE™ Texture product becomes water soluble, the powder begins to hydrate and viscosity increases.
In some applications, it may be desirable to heat the entire volume of water, disperse the CELLOSIZE™ Texture powder, then cool the mixture while agitating until hydration is complete. It is very important, however, to have adequate cooling after wetting with hot water to ensure complete hydration and viscosity development
- Heat approximately 1/3 the required volume of water to at least 194°F (90°C).
- Add the CELLOSIZE™ Texture powder to the heated water with agitation.
- Agitate the mixture until the particles are thoroughly wetted and evenly dispersed.
- For complete solubilization, add the remainder of the water as cold water or ice to lower the temperature of the dispersion. Once the dispersion reaches the temperature at which that particular CELLOSIZE™ Texture product becomes water soluble, the powder begins to hydrate and viscosity increases.
- Continue agitation for at least 30 minutes after the proper temperature is reached. Your solution of CELLOSIZE™ Texture cellulose ether is now ready to use.
Dispersion by Dry-Blending – Dry-blending involves mixing CELLOSIZE™ Texture powder with other dry ingredients before adding the water component. Dry-blending separates the particles of CELLOSIZE™ Texture to allow thorough wet-out and complete hydration when water is added. The minimum ratio of other dry, powdered ingredients to CELLOSIZE™ Texture varies from 7:1 to 3:1.
- Combine CELLOSIZE™ Texture powder with other dry-powder ingredients. The suggested ratio of other dry-powder ingredients in CELLOSIZE™ Texture is 7:1; however, the ratio may vary from 7:1 to 3:1.
- Thoroughly blend the dry components.
- Add the dry mix to the water with agitation. The rate of hydration will depend upon both the relative particle sizes and the rate of agitation during and after addition of the mixture to the water.
- Agitate until the CELLOSIZE™ Texture has completely hydrated and the solution is consistently smooth. Your solution of CELLOSIZE™ Texture cellulose ether is now ready for further processing.
The amine function in general on amino silicone can be oxidized by air, high temperature, the formulation and/or the perfume, creating a yellowing effect over time.
This can be inhibited by the addition of an antioxidant such as Sodium Metabisulfite, Etidronic Acid – approx. 0.1-0.3% or the addition of chelatant such as VERSENE™ NA2 Crystals Chelating Agent (EDTA).
This phenomenon can as well be avoided by the use of low-yellowing amino silicone without primary amine like DOWSIL™ 8500 Conditioning Agent, DOWSIL™ CE-8411 Smooth Plus Emulsion, DOWSIL™ 969 Emulsion, DOWSIL™ AP-8087 Fluid.
Clear shampoos can be formulated by adding the following silicones:
- Detergent soluble silicone polyethers with medium to high HLB: XIAMETER™ OFX-0190 Fluid or XIAMETER™ OFX-0193 Fluid
- Amino functional silicones: DOWSIL™ 8500 Conditioning Agent
- Silicone microemulsion: DOWSIL™ CE-7081 Smart Style, DOWSIL™ CE-1874 MicroEmulsion, DOWSIL™ CE-7114 Silicone Quat MicroEmulsion
Clear rinse off products can be formulated by adding the following silicones:
ACUDYNE™ hair fixative emulsion polymers are compatible with ingredients commonly found in hair styling products. Due to the design of these products, a slight change in color appearance of the product may occur from lot to lot due to slight variations in particle size. These products are supplied as low viscosity emulsions and can be incorporated directly into formulations. When neutralized with a base, they solubilize to clear solutions.
The preferred order of addition when using these hair fixatives in pump and aerosol spray formulations is as follow:
- Add the solvent and water to the mixing vessel
- Add the neutralization agent and stir until uniform
- Add the hair fixative polymer at a rate such that the emulsion disperses as it contacts the stirring solution. Stir until clear.
- Add remaining ingredients
- Fill into aerosols cans and add propellant (if formulating an aerosol spray).
The preferred order of addition when using these hair fixatives in gel formulations is as follow:
- Blend the rheology modifiers with about half of the water
- In a separate container with stirring, add the remaining water, neutralization agent, hair fixative, and other ingredients and stir until uniform. Add the preservative.
- Add the rheology modifier mix with overhead stirring to hair fixative mix. Stir until clear.
ACULYN™ ASE and HASE rheology modifiers are compatible with surfactants, solvents, oils and salts commonly found in cosmetic and toiletry products. These products undergo instantaneous thickening when neutralized with a base. ACULYN™ ASE and HASE thickeners are supplied as low viscosity emulsions and can be incorporated directly into formulations with none of the concerns about dissolution, particulate clumping, or dusting problems than can be encountered with dry products. ACULYN™ ASE and HASE polymers are also cold processable.
Because thickening occurs instantaneously upon neutralization with base, in-line mixing with static mixers is possible. Upon neutralization, ACULYN™ ASE and HASE emulsions becomes clear, viscous solutions.
The preferred order of addition when using ACULYN™ ASE and HASE rheology modifiers in aqueous formulations is as follow:
- Add ACULYN™ polymer to the water
- Add other ingredients from the most acidic to the most alkaline
- Add the neutralizing agent
If this sequence is not desirable, ACULYN™ ASE and HASE polymers can be added directly to an alkaline formulation after first diluting the ACULYN™ product with three parts of water. Addition of the water prevents gel particles (small particles with neutralized swollen surfaces and unneutralized cores that will take considerable time to completely dissolve).
If the ACULYN™ products are being used in emulsion formulations, the recommended order of addition is as follows:
- Add ACULYN™ polymer to the water phase at temperature
- Add the other water phase ingredients
- Mix separately the oil phase ingredients at temperature
- Mix the oil phase into the water phase maintaining temperature
- Neutralize the ACULYN™ polymer
- Cool the mixture with constant stirring
- Add the preservative (if any) at a safe temperature
HASE rheology modifiers can also be used in emulsifier-free formulations a s the primary emulsifiers.
It is recommended when using ACULYN™ products with high levels of ethanol to add the ACULYN™ to the ethanol rather than the ethanol to the ACULYN™. Putting a large amount of ethanol into some undiluted ACULYN™ products can generate serious coagulation leading to pipe clogging.
ACULYN™ 44 Rheology Modifiers are compatible with cationic surfactants, acids, and peroxides as well as other ingredients commonly found in cosmetic and toiletry products.
ACULYN™ 44 is supplied as a high viscosity liquid with a water/propylene glycol solvent that thickens directly upon addition to a formulation due to interactions with a surfactant or dispersed phase.
ACULYN™ 44 rheology modifiers should be added slowly and steadily near the periphery of the mixing tank. The rate of addition should be adjusted to allow uniform incorporation of the thickener. Rapid addition may cause excessive thickening or flocculation due do highly localized thickener concentrations. Due to its high viscosity, ACULYN™ 44 may need to be warmed prior pumping. A maximum temperature of 50°C is recommended.
To ensure optimum performance of ACULYN™ 44 rheology modifier, the following procedure is recommended:
- Introduce most of the formulation water into the reactor
- Ad ACULYN™ 44 polymer and stir vigorously for a minimum of 5 minutes. Note: If the formulation does not contain a surfactant that helps dispersion, step 2 should be extended to a minimum of 40 minutes. Either low speed paddle stirrers or high spin turbines are suitable.
- Add the most hydrophilic (high HLB) surfactants and ingredients and stir for a minimum of 5 minutes
- Add the remaining components, saving the most hydrophobic component for last