Yarn type and infill type are the most import factors for rotational resistance, but pile height and infill depth also play key roles.

Impact on Rotational Resistance

Rotational resistance chart
-- according to Dow research

General Characteristics Dow Products Qualities Results
Yarn Type

The type of the yarn plays an extremely important role when it comes to rotational resistance as the fibrillation resistance of the fibers influences the degree of entanglements of the yarn, also a key factor in player safety.

A stiff yarn will produce higher rotational resistance, while a resilient yarn will allow to achieve a lower degree of rotational resistance.

Because of their design, monofilament yarns are less prone to fibrillate and therefore present greater advantages in terms of rotational resistance.

DOWLEX™ Polyethylene Resins, ELITE™ Enhanced Polyethylene Resins, AFFINITY™ Polyolefin Plastomers Creation of playing surfaces with better traction and safety through better mechanical performance of the yarns Studs and cleats can easily break through the fiber surface, twisting and releasing as if they were digging into natural grass.
Pile Height

Pile height plays an important role in rotational resistance due to its potential degree of entanglements of the yarn. Thus, the longer the blades of grass the greater are the chances for a player to get entangled in the fiber surface.

Yarn post-fibrillation can increase the potential degree of entanglements.

Best performance will be achieved by the right combination between pile height, geometry and resilience of the yarn.

Your Dow product choice for yarn type will contribute to desired pile height.
Infill Type

Infill type, alongside the yarn, is one of the crucial elements of the turf system influencing rotational resistance. The player's studded shoes sink into the infill and thus the rotational resistance can vary significantly depending on the infill depth, shape, mechanical properties, and compaction behaviour.

Ultimately, the infill needs to avoid too tight resistance and key to achieve optimal performance is the right combination between hard and soft properties. This can be achieved by mixing an elastomers, softer and more flexible, with a plastomer, a stiffer product which will lower the sliding properties of the surface.

Polyolefin Elastomers VERSIFY™ Plastomers & Elastomers and AFFINITY™ Polyolefin Plastomers The density and molecular weight (MW) influence the balance of softness, oil and filler acceptance Whether it is crosslinked or thermoplastic infill needs to be evaluated in a system approach to comply with the rotational ball requirement.
Infill Depth Infill depth can have an impact on rotational resistance only when the infill depth is below a certain level. Any depth above the critical depth will not make a difference in terms of rotational resistance. Your Dow product choice for infill type will contribute to desired infill depth.