OPTIM™ Synthetic Glycerine - Solubility

Because of its hydroxyl groups, glycerine has solubility characteristics similar to those of water and the simple aliphatic alcohols. It is completely miscible with water, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, sec.-butyl alcohol, tertiary amyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, trimethylene glycol and phenol.

Glycerine has limited solubility in dioxane and ethyl ether. It is practically insoluble, however, in higher alcohols, fatty oils, hydrocarbons, and chlorinated solvents such as chlorhexane, chlorbenzene and chloroform. It is completely miscible with ethylene glycol monoethyl ether but is miscible with only a limited amount of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

Because of the importance of glycerine as a solvent in pharmaceutical preparations and flavor extracts, considerable work has been done on the solubility of a number of substances in glycerine.

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine (24KB PDF)

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine

Compounds A-B

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine (24KB PDF)

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine
Substance
Glycerine Concentration % Weight
Temp. °C
Solubility in Parts per 100 Parts of solvent
Ref
Alum
NS
15
40
6
Ammonium carbonate
NS
99.04
87.27
15
20
20
20
19.8
13.7
8
9
9
Ammonium chloride
NS
15
20.06
8
Anisic aldehyde
NS
15
0.1
1
Arsenic acid
NS
15
20
6
Arsenious acid
NS
15
20
6
Atropine
NS
15
3
5
Atropine sulfate
99.04
87.27
20
20
45.2
45.8
9
9
Barium chloride
NS
15
9.73
8
Benzoic acid
98.5
95.1
90
86.5
75
50
-
23
23
-
23
23
2
2.01
1.74
1.18
1.02
0.06
4
-
-
4
-
-
Benzyl acetate
NS
15
0.1
1
Boric acid
98.5
86.5
20
20
24.8
13.79
4
4
Brucine
NS
15
2.25
5


NS = Glycerine content not specified, probably 95 to 100 percent.
†References for Table
(1) “Allen’s Commercial Organic Analysis,” Fourth ed, p. 461. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia (1923).
(2) Cameron, F.K., and Patten, H.E., J. Phys. Chem. 15, 67-72 (1911).
(3) Chiara, P., Giorn. farm. chim., 66, 94-96 (1917).
(4) Holm, K., Pharm. Weekblad, 58, 860-862 (1921); ibid. 1033-1037 (1921)
(5) Lawrie, J. W., “Glycerol and the Glycols,” p. 232. New York, The Chemical Catalog Co. Inc. (Reinhold Publishing Corp.) 1928.
(6) Lewkowitsch, J., “Chemical Technology and Analysis of Fats and Waxes,” Sixth ed., p. 254, London, MacMillan & Co. Ltd. (1921).
(7) Noble, M. V., and Garrett, A. B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66, 231-235 (1944).
(8) Ossendovsky, A. M., J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc., 37, 1071 (1906). Through Mac Ardle, D. W., “The Use of Solvents in Organic Chemistry,” p. 80. New York, D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. (1925).
(9) Roborgh, J. A., Pharm. Weekblad, 64, 1205-1209 (1927).
(10) Schnellbach, W. and Rosin, J., J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 18, 1230-1235 (1929).

Compounds C-G

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine (24KB PDF)

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine
Substance
Glycerine Concentration % Weight
Temp. °C
Solubility in Parts per 100 Parts of solvent
Ref
Calcium hydroxide
35
25
1.3
2
Calcium hypophosphite
99.04
87.27
20
20
2.5
3.2
9
9
Calcium oleate
45
15
1.18
6
Calcium sulfate
NS
15
5.17
8
Calcium sulfide
NS
15
5
6
Cinchonine
NS
15
0.3
5
Cinchonine sulfate
NS
15
6.7
5
Cinnamic aldehyde
NS
15
0.1
1
Codeine hydrochloride
99.04
87.27
20
20
11.1
4.7
9
9
Copper acetate
NS
15
10
6
Copper sulfate
NS
15
30
6
Ethyl acetate
99.04
87.27
20
20
1.9
1.8
9
9
Ethyl ether
99.04
87.27
20
20
0.65
0.38
9
9
Eugenol
NS
15
0.1
1
Ferrous sulfate
NS
15
25
6
Guaiacol
99.04
87.27
20
20
13.1
9.05
9
9
Guaiacol carbonate
99.04
87.27
20
20
0.043
0.039
9
9


NS = Glycerine content not specified, probably 95 to 100 percent.
†References for Table
(1) “Allen’s Commercial Organic Analysis,” Fourth ed, p. 461. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia (1923).
(2) Cameron, F.K., and Patten, H.E., J. Phys. Chem. 15, 67-72 (1911).
(3) Chiara, P., Giorn. farm. chim., 66, 94-96 (1917).
(4) Holm, K., Pharm. Weekblad, 58, 860-862 (1921); ibid. 1033-1037 (1921)
(5) Lawrie, J. W., “Glycerol and the Glycols,” p. 232. New York, The Chemical Catalog Co. Inc. (Reinhold Publishing Corp.) 1928.
(6) Lewkowitsch, J., “Chemical Technology and Analysis of Fats and Waxes,” Sixth ed., p. 254, London, MacMillan & Co. Ltd. (1921).
(7) Noble, M. V., and Garrett, A. B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66, 231-235 (1944).
(8) Ossendovsky, A. M., J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc., 37, 1071 (1906). Through Mac Ardle, D. W., “The Use of Solvents in Organic Chemistry,” p. 80. New York, D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. (1925).
(9) Roborgh, J. A., Pharm. Weekblad, 64, 1205-1209 (1927).
(10) Schnellbach, W. and Rosin, J., J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 18, 1230-1235 (1929).

Compounds I-O

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine (24KB PDF)

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine
Substance
Glycerine Concentration % Weight
Temp. °C
Solubility in Parts per 100 Parts of solvent
Ref
Iodine
NS
15
2
8
Idoform
95
15
0.12
3
Iron and potassium tartrate
NS
15
8
5
Iron lactate
NS
15
16
5
Iron oleate
45
15
0.71
8
Lead acetate
NS
98.5
86.5
15
-
-
10
143
129.3
8
4
4
Lead sulfate
NS
15
30.3
8
Magnesium oleate
45
15
0.94
6
Mercuric chloride
NS
15
8
8
Mercurous chloride
NS
15
7.5
5
Mercurous cyanide
NS
15
27
5
Morphine
NS
15
0.45
5
Morphine acetate
NS
15
20
5
Morphine hydrochloride
NS
15
20
5
Novacaine
99.04
87.27
20
20
11.2
7.8
9
9
Oxalic acid
NS
15
15.1
6


NS = Glycerine content not specified, probably 95 to 100 percent.
†References for Table
(1) “Allen’s Commercial Organic Analysis,” Fourth ed, p. 461. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia (1923).
(2) Cameron, F.K., and Patten, H.E., J. Phys. Chem. 15, 67-72 (1911).
(3) Chiara, P., Giorn. farm. chim., 66, 94-96 (1917).
(4) Holm, K., Pharm. Weekblad, 58, 860-862 (1921); ibid. 1033-1037 (1921)
(5) Lawrie, J. W., “Glycerol and the Glycols,” p. 232. New York, The Chemical Catalog Co. Inc. (Reinhold Publishing Corp.) 1928.
(6) Lewkowitsch, J., “Chemical Technology and Analysis of Fats and Waxes,” Sixth ed., p. 254, London, MacMillan & Co. Ltd. (1921).
(7) Noble, M. V., and Garrett, A. B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66, 231-235 (1944).
(8) Ossendovsky, A. M., J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc., 37, 1071 (1906). Through Mac Ardle, D. W., “The Use of Solvents in Organic Chemistry,” p. 80. New York, D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. (1925).
(9) Roborgh, J. A., Pharm. Weekblad, 64, 1205-1209 (1927).
(10) Schnellbach, W. and Rosin, J., J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 18, 1230-1235 (1929).

Compounds P-Q

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine (24KB PDF)

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine
Substance
Glycerine Concentration % Weight
Temp. °C
Solubility in Parts per 100 Parts of solvent
Ref
Pentaerythritol
100
100
9.3
Anon.
Phenacetin
99.04
87.27
20
20
0.47
0.3
9
9
Phenol
99.04
87.27
20
20
276.4
361.8
9
9
Phenylethyl alcohol
NS
15
1.5
1
Phosphorus
NS
15
ca. 0.25
8
Potassium arsenate
NS
15
50.13
8
Potassium bromide
NS
98.5
86.5
15
-
-
25
17.15
20.59
6
4
4
Potassium chlorate
NS
98.5
86.5
15
-
-
3.54
1.03
1.32
8
4
4
Potassium chloride
NS
15
3.72
8
Potassium cyanide
NS
15
31.84
8
Potassium iodate
NS
15
1.9
5
Potassium iodide
NS
98.5
86.5
15
-
-
39.72
50.7
58.27
8
4
4
Quinine
NS
15
0.47
8
Quinine sulfate
98.5
86.5
-
-
1.32
0.72
4
4
Quinine tannate
NS
99.04
87.27
15
20
20
0.25
2.8
2.45
5
9
9


NS = Glycerine content not specified, probably 95 to 100 percent.
†References for Table
(1) “Allen’s Commercial Organic Analysis,” Fourth ed, p. 461. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia (1923).
(2) Cameron, F.K., and Patten, H.E., J. Phys. Chem. 15, 67-72 (1911).
(3) Chiara, P., Giorn. farm. chim., 66, 94-96 (1917).
(4) Holm, K., Pharm. Weekblad, 58, 860-862 (1921); ibid. 1033-1037 (1921)
(5) Lawrie, J. W., “Glycerol and the Glycols,” p. 232. New York, The Chemical Catalog Co. Inc. (Reinhold Publishing Corp.) 1928.
(6) Lewkowitsch, J., “Chemical Technology and Analysis of Fats and Waxes,” Sixth ed., p. 254, London, MacMillan & Co. Ltd. (1921).
(7) Noble, M. V., and Garrett, A. B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66, 231-235 (1944).
(8) Ossendovsky, A. M., J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc., 37, 1071 (1906). Through Mac Ardle, D. W., “The Use of Solvents in Organic Chemistry,” p. 80. New York, D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. (1925).
(9) Roborgh, J. A., Pharm. Weekblad, 64, 1205-1209 (1927).
(10) Schnellbach, W. and Rosin, J., J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 18, 1230-1235 (1929).

Compounds S

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine (24KB PDF)

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine
Substance
Glycerine Concentration % Weight
Temp. °C
Solubility in Parts per 100 Parts of solvent
Ref
Salicin
NS
15
12.5
5
Salicylic acid
98.5
86.4
-
-
1.63
0.985
4
4
Santonin
99.04
87.27
15
6
5
Sodium arsenate
NS
99.04
87.27
15
20
20
50
64
44
8
9
9
Sodium bi-borate
98.5
86.5
-
-
111.15
89.36
4
4
Sodium bicorbonate
NS
15
8.06
8
Sodium tetraborate (borax)
NS
15
60
8
Sodium carbonate (crystals)
NS
15
98.3
8
Sodium chlorate
NS
15
20
5
Sodium hypophosphite
99.04
87.27
20
20
32.7
42.2
9
9
Sodium pyrophosphate
87.27
20
9.6
9
Sodium sulfate
100
25
8.1
10
Stearic acid
99.04
87.27
20
20
0.089
0.066
9
9
Strychnine
NS
15
0.25
5
Strychnine nitrate
NS
15
4
5
Strychnine sulfate
NS
15
22.5
5
Sulfur
NS
15
ca. 0.1
8


NS = Glycerine content not specified, probably 95 to 100 percent.
†References for Table
(1) “Allen’s Commercial Organic Analysis,” Fourth ed, p. 461. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia (1923).
(2) Cameron, F.K., and Patten, H.E., J. Phys. Chem. 15, 67-72 (1911).
(3) Chiara, P., Giorn. farm. chim., 66, 94-96 (1917).
(4) Holm, K., Pharm. Weekblad, 58, 860-862 (1921); ibid. 1033-1037 (1921)
(5) Lawrie, J. W., “Glycerol and the Glycols,” p. 232. New York, The Chemical Catalog Co. Inc. (Reinhold Publishing Corp.) 1928.
(6) Lewkowitsch, J., “Chemical Technology and Analysis of Fats and Waxes,” Sixth ed., p. 254, London, MacMillan & Co. Ltd. (1921).
(7) Noble, M. V., and Garrett, A. B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66, 231-235 (1944).
(8) Ossendovsky, A. M., J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc., 37, 1071 (1906). Through Mac Ardle, D. W., “The Use of Solvents in Organic Chemistry,” p. 80. New York, D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. (1925).
(9) Roborgh, J. A., Pharm. Weekblad, 64, 1205-1209 (1927).
(10) Schnellbach, W. and Rosin, J., J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 18, 1230-1235 (1929).

Compounds T-Z

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine (24KB PDF)

Solubility of Various Compounds in Glycerine
Substance
Glycerine Concentration % Weight
Temp. °C
Solubility in Parts per 100 Parts of solvent
Ref
Tannic acid
NS
15
48.8
6
Tannin
NS
15
48.83
8
Tartar emetic
NS
15
5.5
5
Theobromine
99.04
87.27
20
20
0.028
0.017
9
9
Urea
NS
15
50
5
Zinc chloride
NS
15
49.87
8
Zinc iodide
NS
15
39.78
8
Zinc sulfate
NS
15
35.18
8
Zinc valerate
99.04
87.27
20
20
0.336
0.382
9
9


NS = Glycerine content not specified, probably 95 to 100 percent.
†References for Table
(1) “Allen’s Commercial Organic Analysis,” Fourth ed, p. 461. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia (1923).
(2) Cameron, F.K., and Patten, H.E., J. Phys. Chem. 15, 67-72 (1911).
(3) Chiara, P., Giorn. farm. chim., 66, 94-96 (1917).
(4) Holm, K., Pharm. Weekblad, 58, 860-862 (1921); ibid. 1033-1037 (1921)
(5) Lawrie, J. W., “Glycerol and the Glycols,” p. 232. New York, The Chemical Catalog Co. Inc. (Reinhold Publishing Corp.) 1928.
(6) Lewkowitsch, J., “Chemical Technology and Analysis of Fats and Waxes,” Sixth ed., p. 254, London, MacMillan & Co. Ltd. (1921).
(7) Noble, M. V., and Garrett, A. B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66, 231-235 (1944).
(8) Ossendovsky, A. M., J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc., 37, 1071 (1906). Through Mac Ardle, D. W., “The Use of Solvents in Organic Chemistry,” p. 80. New York, D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. (1925).
(9) Roborgh, J. A., Pharm. Weekblad, 64, 1205-1209 (1927).
(10) Schnellbach, W. and Rosin, J., J. Am. Pharm. Assoc., 18, 1230-1235 (1929).

Miscibility of Organic Solvents with Glycerine

Miscibility of Organic Solvents with Glycerine (12KB PDF)

Miscibility of Organic Solvents with Glycerine
Miscible
Immiscible Partially Miscible
o-Cresol Acetone Di-n-amylamine
Diethylenetriamine Isoamyl acetate Di-n-butylamine
Diethyl formamide n-Amyl cyanide
Diisopropylamine Anisaldehyde
Ethyl alcohol Benzene
Triethylenetetramine Benzyl ether
a-Methylbenzylamine Chloroform
a-Methylbenzyldiethanolamine Cinnamaldehyde
a-Methylbenzylethanolamine Diisobutyl ketone
2-Methyl-5-ethylpyridine Diethyl acetic acid
2-Phenylethylamine 2,6,8 Trimethyl 4-nonanone
Isopropanolamine Di(2-ethylhexyl) amine
Pyridine Di-n-propyl aniline
Ethyl chloracetate
Ethyl cinnamate
Ethyl ether
Ethyl phenylacetate
3-Heptanol
n-Heptyl acetate
n-Hexyl ether
a-Methylbenzyldimethylamine
Methyl isopropyl ketone
4-Methyl-n-valeric acid
o-Phenetidine
Salicylaldehyde
Tetradecanol
Tri-butyl phosphate